I have decided to model my teams after the Monty Python philosopher’s soccer match. So here come the referees, scientists who set up the laws of the game.

**Head Referee: Albert Einstein**

Einstein was a German theoretical physicist, best remembered for his theory of relativity, the photoelectric effectand mass–energy equivalence, (*E* = *mc*^{2)}. He was a 1921 Nobel Prize winner.

Einstein’s many contributions to physics include

- Special theory of relativity, combining classical mechanics and electromagnetistm
- General theory of relativity, a new theory of gravitation which added the principle of equivalence to the principle of relativity, correcting Newton’s equations for large bodies of mass
- Founding of relativistic cosmology with a cosmological constant
- The deflection of light by gravity and gravitational lensing, helping us understand black holes
- An explanation for capillary action
- Proving that light moves as both a wave and particle
- The quantum theory of atomic motion in solids
- Zero point energy
- The semiclassical version of the Schrodinger equation
- Discovering the photoelectric effect, the fact that light can excite electrons, causing them to be emitted from solids, specifically metals
- The quantum theory of a monatomic gas which predicted Bose-Einstein condensation, a new form of matter

**Linesman: Sir Isaac Newton**

Isaac Newton was one of the most influential scientists in all of history. His famous work *Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica*, sets the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. In this book, Newton described the law of universal gravitation and the three laws of motion

In mechanics, Newton also set down the idea that momentum in a closed system is conserved. In addition, he built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed the theory of the visible spectrum of color through experiments with a prism. He is also credited with the law of cooling, a mathematical analysis of the rate of temperature changes.

Finally, Newton was the leader in developing differential and integral calculus.

**Linesman: Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier **

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was a French scientist who is now credited as the father of modern chemistry. Early in his career he recognized a component of the air and named it. He also “discovered” and named hydrogen gas. Lavoisier is most famous for his law of conservation of mass, which states that the mass of the reactants of a chemical reaction must equal the mass of the products. In addition to this, he helped construct the metric system, write the first extensive list of elements, and helped construct a system of chemical nomenclature and stoichiometry.

http://www.questacon.edu.au/indepth/einstein/science.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein, http://www.google.com/archivesearch?hl=en&safe=off&rlz=1T4GGIH_enUS284US284&ei=_Di5SdGzKI6gM4DLvacI&resnum=0&q=isaac+newton’s+achievements&um=1&ie=UTF-8&scoring=t&ei=_ji5Sd_sAZiWMfqCzZcI&sa=X&oi=timeline_result&resnum=11&ct=title, http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Lavoisier.html